American Football Wiki
World League of American Football
World League of American Football
Sport American football
Founded 1991
Ceased 1992
No. of teams 10
Country Canada
Great Britain
United States
Sacramento Surge

The World League of American Football (WLAF) was founded in 1990 with support from the National Football League to play professional American football in North America, Europe and later possibly Asia. This came after the NFL had played popular American Bowls in London's Wembley Stadium and elsewhere since 1986.

The WLAF played two seasons with 10 teams in the spring of 1991 and 1992, with the World Bowl as championship games. Rules unique to WLAF included assigning increasing point value to field goals based on distance, and a requirement that at least one player of non-US nationality participate in at least every other series of downs.

New ideas were successfully tested, like using the two-point conversion rule also on the professional field before adopting it in the NFL in 1994. Other minor tweaks in gameplay, such as a shorter kickoff tee, were also first used in the WLAF. Several technical innovations, such as helmet mounted cameras and one-way radios, enabling coaches to tell plays directly to quarterbacks, were also developed.

In 1995, games in Europe were resumed as the World League, in 1998 as NFL Europe and in 2007 as NFL Europa. The league ceased operations on 29 June 2007.

WLAF history[]

The original WLAF was a spring developmental American football league which had 10 teams playing a 10-game regular season. Two additional franchises were initially proposed in Paris and Mexico City. Teams were aligned in three divisions:

The playoff format consisted of four teams: the three divisional champions, plus a wild card with the best overall non-division winning record. The two teams emerging from the World League of American Football semifinal playoffs met at the end of the season in the World Bowl. The first two World Bowl games were held at predetermined locations much like the modern Super Bowl.

The original WLAF was less than popular in the United States. This might also have been caused by the surprising domination of the three Europe-based teams in 1991, which had a combined 24-6 record, while no North American team managed to be better than 5-5. The Raleigh-Durham Skyhawks even lost all 10 games as well as their franchise, which was moved to Ohio for 1992.

In 1992, fortunes changed and the European teams all had losing seasons. Despite this, the European fans remained loyal, but operations of the WLAF were suspended after the 1992 season as the league lost money and the involved NFL owners were not willing to invest more. However, the National Football League still liked the idea of a spring developmental league—and they needed another pro Football league to help their cause in the antitrust and free agency lawsuit with the National Football League Players' Association.

The Sacramento and San Antonio franchises left the WLAF and were set to join the Canadian Football League in 1993. San Antonio folded prior to the season but the Sacramento Gold Miners did play in the CFL for three years, starting the CFL USA initiative created in the wake of the WLAF's suspension.

1991 season[]

1991 WLAF Final standings
Team Record (W-L-T) PF PA
London Monarchs 9–1–0 310 121
Barcelona Dragons 8–2–0 206 126
Frankfurt Galaxy 7–3–0 155 139
North America East
New York/New Jersey Knights 5–5–0 257 155
Orlando Thunder 5–5–0 252 286
Montreal Machine 4–6–0 145 244
Raleigh-Durham Skyhawks 0–10–0 123 300
North America West
Birmingham Fire 5–5–0 140 140
San Antonio Riders 4–6–0 176 196
Sacramento Surge 3–7–0 179 229
Barcelona 10 Birmingham 3
London 42 NY-NJ 26
World Bowl I (London)
London 21 Barcelona 0

1992 season[]

1992 WLAF Final standings
Team Record (W-L-T) PF PA
Barcelona Dragons 5–5–0 104 161
Frankfurt Galaxy 3–7–0 150 257
London Monarchs 2–7–1 178 203
North American East Division
Orlando Thunder 8–2–0 247 127
New York/New Jersey Knights 6–4–0 248 188
Montreal Machine 2–8–0 175 274
Ohio Glory 1–9–0 132 230
North American West Division
Sacramento Surge 8–2–0 250 152
Birmingham Fire 7–2–1 192 165
San Antonio Riders 7–3–0 195 150
Orlando 45 Birmingham 7
Sacramento 17 Barcelona 15
World Bowl II (Montreal)
Sacramento 21 Orlando 17

1995 comeback[]

After revamping itself into an exclusively European circuit, the WLAF re-launched in 1995. The league consisted of the three existing European teams from the original format as well as three new teams in Amsterdam, Düsseldorf (who would compete as Rhein) and Edinburgh (who would compete as Scotland).

By the end of the 1997 season, there were growing concerns that their markets, except Germany, were not living up to their potential. Radical changes were made to the two British teams. The London Monarchs would become the England Monarchs, and play their home games in London, Birmingham and Bristol. Also, the Scottish Claymores would divide their schedule between Edinburgh and Glasgow. Then, at a press conference in San Diego during Super Bowl XXXII weekend, the league announced it too would be changing: the league would be rebranded as NFL Europe.

Television coverage[]

USA Network carried most of the WLAF games on Saturday and Monday nights in the 1991 season and again on Saturday nights for the 1992 season. As mentioned, it premiered the helmet cam to TV audiences. ABC Sports broadcast some games in both seasons, mostly on Sunday afternoons. ABC showed the 1991 World Bowl, while USA carried the game in 1992. Coverage in Canada was led by RDS, a French-language broadcaster, which focused on Montreal Machine games.


  • Barcelona
    • Estadi Olímpic de Montjuïc 1991-92
  • Birmingham
  • Frankfurt
    • Waldstadion 1991-92
  • London
    • Wembley Stadium 1991-92
  • Montreal
  • New York/New Jersey
  • Ohio
  • Orlando
  • Raleigh-Durham
    • Carter–Finley Stadium 1991
  • Sacramento
    • Charles C. Hughes Stadium 1991
    • Hornet Stadium 1992
  • San Antonio

See also[]

  • World Bowl
  • National Football Leauge

External links[]

World League of American Football/NFL Europa
Teams Teams (cont'd)
1991 1992 1993 no season 1994 no season 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
2005 2006 2007

See also[]

  • World Bowl
  • Intercontinental Football League