Professional American football, especially its established top level, the National Football League, has had a long history in Los Angeles, the center of the second-largest media market in the United States. Since 1995, Los Angeles has been by far the largest U.S. market without an NFL team. It is currently more than double the size of any other North American market to get serious consideration for a team, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, which is in turn more than double the size of any other non-NFL market. The NFL and other professional leagues have had multiple teams in Los Angeles between 1946 and 1994, all of which originally played home games in the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum. The nearest team for the area is the Chargers which are located in San Diego.
In 1946, the Los Angeles Dons of the All-America Football Conference started play, lasting four years before folding with the demise of the AAFC. Also in 1946, the Cleveland Rams became the first National Football League (NFL) franchise to locate in Los Angeles. The Rams moved to Anaheim Stadium for 1980, and left southern California altogether in 1995 for St. Louis. The AFL founded the Los Angeles Chargers in 1960, who subsequently moved to San Diego the following year. The Oakland Raiders moved to Los Angeles in 1982, only to return to Oakland after the 1994 season. There were problems with the filling all of the 90,000-plus seats in the Coliseum to avoid a television blackout in the Los Angeles area.
The lack of an NFL team in Los Angeles is an issue the league and the city have been working on to resolve since the Raiders left. One key sticking point had been whether the Coliseum should be the primary venue for a new team, or whether a lower capacity NFL-specific stadium should be built in the area. In November 2007, Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa declared that the policy of requiring the NFL to relocate to the Coliseum will change and other options will be explored.
On August 9, 2011, the LA City Council approved a proposal to build Farmers Field in a 12-0 vote. The new stadium will enable an NFL team to move to Los Angeles. The stadium will be located in Downtown Los Angeles as part of the LA Live complex and is expected to be completed by 2016. 
The early yearsEdit
The first NFL team to name itself after the city of Los Angeles was the Los Angeles Buccaneers in 1926. However, this was a road team, based in Chicago, made up of Californians, primarily University of California, Berkeley and University of Southern California alumni. The historian Michael McCambridge says that the Buccaneers became a road team because the Los Angeles Coliseum Commission had banned pro teams from its stadium. However, the difficulty of transcontinental travel in the era before modern air travel must have also been a factor in the decision to base the team in the Midwest. The upstart American Football League also featured a similar Midwest-based road team of West Coast players, the Los Angeles Wildcats. Both Los Angeles teams performed respectably on the field but folded after the 1926 season. Ironically, the Wildcats' last game was an exhibition in San Francisco against the Buccaneers in January 1927. 
The first major professional football team to actually reside in Los Angeles was the Los Angeles Bulldogs, who operated both as an independent and as a member of several other leagues from approximately 1934 to 1948, in its later years reduced to minor status. The NFL had actually admitted the Bulldogs to the league for the 1937 NFL season, but reneged on the agreement because of travel concerns (the great distance between the Bulldogs and every other team, plus having to cross the Rocky Mountains in an era when travel by airplane was still a rare and hazardous endeavor, proved to be too much of a risk for the NFL to be willing to take).
The NFL All Star Game/Pro Bowl and Super Bowl in and around Los AngelesEdit
The NFL did play its first league All-Star Games (which later became known as the Pro Bowl) in Los Angeles. L.A.'s Wrigley Field hosted the first All-Star Game after the 1938 season. Gilmore Stadium in Los Angeles hosted the 1939 and 1940 All-Star Games following the respective NFL seasons.
The Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum was the site of the Pro Bowl from 1950 through 1972. The 1979 Pro Bowl was also held at the Coliseum. In 1980, the Pro Bowl moved to Aloha Stadium on the island of Oahu in Hawaii, where it has been held ever since except in 2010.
The Rose Bowl in Pasadena also has hosted Super Bowls XI, XIV, XVII, XXI, and XXVII.
NFL franchises in Los Angeles 1946–1994Edit
- Main article: History of the Los Angeles Rams
In 1946, the defending NFL champions, the Cleveland Rams moved to Los Angeles. The other league owners were not pleased with the move, but the league relented due in large part to concern that Los Angeles could potentially become the nucleus of a rival league. The Rams played home games at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, which had originally been built to host the 1932 Summer Olympic Games and which was also the home of the USC Trojans and the UCLA Bruins. The Rams made history their first season in 1946, when they signed the NFL's first African-American players since the early 1930s: former UCLA stars Kenny Washington and Woody Strode.
Also in 1946, the upstart All-America Football Conference began play: the AAFC's Los Angeles Dons also played at the Coliseum. When the AAFC folded in 1950, the Dons went out of business, but the AAFC's San Francisco 49ers were admitted to the NFL. This provided the NFL with a workable pair of West Coast cities for travel.
Another AAFC franchise which moved over to the NFL was the Cleveland Browns, who were based in the city the Rams had deserted. The Browns and the Rams met in the 1950 NFL Championship Game, and the Browns won the game 30–28.
The Rams quickly became established as an NFL power, winning 7 straight divisional titles from 1973-1979, with top quarterbacks like Roman Gabriel and the legendary Fearsome Foursome, consisting of Jack Youngblood, Fred Dryer, Merlin Olsen and Larry Brooks.
Rams move to AnaheimEdit
By 1979 the Rams were a successful franchise, and made it to their first Super Bowl that year. However, they had long been dissatisfied with the L.A. Coliseum, due to its size (the cavernous venue sold out very infrequently, causing blackouts of Rams games on local TV), its location (in South Central Los Angeles, perceived to be one of the city's more dangerous neighborhoods), and its lack of nearby parking. At various times they shared the stadium with both the USC Trojans and UCLA Bruins football teams. Ownership (Carroll Rosenbloom, followed by his widow Georgia Frontiere) was unable to persuade the city to build a new stadium in Los Angeles, so they decided to move out of the Coliseum to Anaheim (28 miles southeast of downtown L.A.) in Orange County, which was then experiencing an enormous boom in population and construction.
Beginning in 1980, the Rams played in Anaheim Stadium, which already had a football press box built into the upper deck when it opened in 1966. Further renovations included enclosing the facility by extending the stadium's three decks (the baseball outfield area had previously been open to the outside), and building luxury suites in the mezzanine "club" level.
Three teams had previously played home games in Anaheim Stadium prior to the Rams' move: the Southern California Sun of the World Football League and the now-defunct football programs at Cal State Fullerton and Long Beach State. During the Rams' stay in Anaheim, they were the stadium's sole football tenant and shared it with the California Angels baseball team.
Rams move to St. LouisEdit
Rams owner Georgia Frontiere began to shop around for a new home for her team, which was falling behind other NFL teams in luxury-box and other non-shared revenue. By the end of the 1994 season, talks had begun with St. Louis and Baltimore; meanwhile, she was hoping that Anaheim and/or Orange County would also make an attractive offer. Anaheim, going through a recession, could not agree on a tax package to pay for the improvements that Frontiere insisted on, so they dropped out of the bidding. Rams fans, bothered by Frontiere talking to other cities about moving the franchise, voiced their anger by asking for her to sell the team, booing her and starting derogatory chants at games directed at her. Attendance began dwindling, due to frustration by the fans over ownership and the performance by the team on the field. Eventually, St. Louis gave Frontiere the offer she wanted, a brand-new $280 million domed stadium called the "Trans World Dome" (currently the Edward Jones Dome) with a long-term lease and over 100 luxury boxes. The move was announced in February 1995 and approved by NFL owners that April. The Rams played their last game as the Los Angeles Rams on Christmas Eve 1994, losing 24–21 to the Washington Redskins in front of only 25,750 fans in attendance at Anaheim Stadium. During the 2009 off season, following Frontiere's death, it was announced the Rams were for sale. It was considered possible that the next owner of the Rams could potentially move the team back to Los Angeles; however, this prospect became much less likely when then-minority owner Stan Kroenke, a Missouri native and resident, acquired complete control in August 2010.
The Coliseum next received an NFL team in 1982, when the Oakland Raiders moved to Los Angeles to become the Los Angeles Raiders. Team owner Al Davis relocated there without the approval of his fellow owners or NFL commissioner Pete Rozelle. One major factor for Davis in moving to the Coliseum despite its flaws as a football stadium was his assumption that the NFL would eventually approve pay-per-view telecasts for its games; such a move would potentially have given the Raiders a virtual TV monopoly in Los Angeles, the nation's second-largest TV market. Davis also counted on being able to persuade the Los Angeles Coliseum Commission to renovate the facility, particularly by installing scores of luxury boxes.
The Raiders continued the success they had in Oakland after the move south, winning Super Bowl XVIII in January 1984 and reaching the AFC Championship Game after the 1990 season. But the team gained a controversial reputation off the field, as its silver and black colors became associated with L.A.'s notorious street gangs. More importantly, the Los Angeles Coliseum Commission never gave Davis the lucrative package of amenities he had been promised, and the NFL's broadcast contracts never instituted pay-per-view. Davis entertained an offer from Irwindale, California (east of downtown L.A.) in 1987, but did not move there.
Prior to 1993, the Coliseum Commission approved multiple changes to enhance the stadium as a football facility: Capacity was reduced, the field was lowered, the surrounding running track was removed, bleachers were replaced by single seats, and locker rooms and fan restrooms were upgraded.
The Coliseum briefly fielded another professional football team, the Los Angeles Express of the United States Football League, from 1983 to 1985. The league played in the springtime, avoiding stadium conflicts with the NFL and the Raiders.
Raiders return to OaklandEdit
Due in no small part to the decision by the Los Angeles Sports Commission to halt further planned renovations to the Coliseum due to repair costs generated by the 1994 Northridge earthquake, Al Davis gave up on Los Angeles, and decided to accept a new stadium renovation offer from Oakland, California and to return to his team's former home. The renovation expanded the Oakland-Alameda County Coliseum to 63,000 seats and added 86 luxury boxes and thousands of club seats. The deal was announced on June 23, 1995 and approved by league owners on August 9 of that year. The Raiders, like the Rams, played their last game in L.A. on Christmas Eve 1994, losing 19–9 to the Kansas City Chiefs in front of 64,130 in attendance at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum.
AFL franchise in Los AngelesEdit
Since 1995: Major developmentsEdit
Within months of the moves of the Rams and Raiders, several NFL teams were rumored to be replacements. They included the Cleveland Browns, the Cincinnati Bengals, the Tampa Bay Buccaneers, and the Seattle Seahawks. However, the Browns moved to become the Baltimore Ravens in 1996 amid major controversy, and a new Browns team occupied a new stadium in 1999. The Bengals, Buccaneers and Seahawks, meanwhile, used L.A.'s vacancy as leverage to convince their cities to help finance new stadiums.
Other developments have included:
- In 1996, Los Angeles Dodgers owner Peter O'Malley offered land near Dodger Stadium for a new football stadium. However, O'Malley was persuaded to drop the proposal in 1997 in favor of supporting the Coliseum plan.
- In March 1996, Seattle Seahawks owner Ken Behring moved office equipment and some athletic gear to the elementary school in Anaheim that once held Rams practices, hoping to get approval for a permanent move to southern California. Because of an owners' revolt, Behring halted the process and moved the equipment back to Seattle. Eventually, Paul Allen bought the team and kept it in Seattle by building Seahawks Stadium, now known as CenturyLink Field.
- Perhaps the closest Los Angeles has come to regaining the NFL was in 1999, when the NFL approved a new franchise, the league's 32nd, for Los Angeles, on the condition that the city and NFL agree on a stadium site and stadium financing. Those agreements were never reached, and in October 1999, the franchise was awarded to a Houston ownership group instead, which formed the Houston Texans.
- In 2001, a proposal was floated for a new stadium near Staples Center. The stadium and team would have been owned by billionaire Phillip Anschutz and Hollywood scion Casey Wasserman, and the stadium would have been built with private funding. That died down quickly when it failed to get the support of the city council. In particular, Mark Ridley-Thomas, whose district includes the Coliseum, never supported it.
- In 2004, reports circulated that Indianapolis Colts owner Jim Irsay visited Southern California, presumably for meetings with local officials on moving his team to Los Angeles. Irsay never confirmed nor denied those reports, and the Colts later reached a deal for a new stadium in Indianapolis.
- As recently as 2005, then Dodgers owner Frank McCourt showed interest in a similar plan to Peter O'Malley's in which a new NFL stadium would be built in Chavez Ravine next to Dodger Stadium. However, like O'Malley, McCourt was accosted by city officials who expressed their displeasure with his idea in mere part to their favoritism of the repeatedly defunct Coliseum plan. McCourt merely stated that his idea was suitable if the most recent Coliseum plan were to fail. In addition, the NFL was also rumored to favor the Dodger Stadium proposal to the countless Coliseum ideas in the past.
- On November 7, 2006, voters in an upper class part of Pasadena overwhelmingly rejected a financing package that would have allocated money for a renovation of the Rose Bowl that would have accommodated an NFL team in fear of greatly increased traffic. The vote was 72 percent against, versus 28 percent in support. Two days later, the San Francisco 49ers broke off talks with the city of San Francisco on a new stadium at Candlestick Point and began negotiations with suburban Santa Clara, where they hope to build a new stadium to open by 2012. However, many details remained unresolved, and at least one person quoted in an article in the Los Angeles Times said that L.A. could still be a possibility for the 49ers. But the following day, the 49ers reopened talks with San Francisco under pressure from U.S. Senator Dianne Feinstein and Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi (both San Franciscans, the latter also being Member of Congress for most of the city of San Francisco). The Niners ultimately constructed their own stadium in Santa Clara.
- In April 2008, Developer Edward P. Roski Jr., a part owner of the Kings and Lakers, proposed a stadium in the City of Industry.
- In June 2008, reports surfaced that the City of Industry could become the home of the 49ers or Raiders by as early as 2010 when both teams' stadium leases expired. Other teams mentioned included San Diego, Minnesota, Jacksonville, Atlanta, New Orleans, Buffalo, and St. Louis.
- In November 2008, Beverly Hills real estate mogul Richard Rand unveiled preliminary plans to build an NFL stadium in Carson, about 10 miles south of Downtown Los Angeles. This was a different proposal than the one Michael Ovitz backed in Carson in 1999. At the time, it was unknown if he was competing with Roski's stadium proposal in Industry, or was hoping to attract a second team amid rumors that the L.A. area might get two teams due to its market size.
- On December 1, 2009, in an interview for KTTV (Fox 11), John Semcken of Majestic Realty (the developer for the Los Angeles Stadium in Industry) stated that there was a 50/50 chance of a team returning for the 2010 NFL season and a 100% chance for the 2011 season. The teams explicitly mentioned in the interview were the Jacksonville Jaguars, San Diego Chargers, Tampa Bay Buccaneers, Buffalo Bills, and St. Louis (formerly Los Angeles) Rams. The interview occurred shortly after the California state legislature and the governor approved plans for the stadium, but several months before Stan Kroenke became sole owner of the Rams.
- In mid season of 2011, news regarding several teams involved in potential expansion broke. It was reported that Malcolm Glazer, the owner of the Tampa Bay Buccaneers, a franchise located in a metropolitan area with some of the lowest attendance figures in multiple pro sports, including football, had talked with officials in L.A. Nothing has been made official yet though, and Glazer also has ties to England (he also owns Manchester United), where there has been a small but growing conversation about potential NFL relocation. Meanwhile, Jacksonville Jaguars owner Wayne Weaver sold the team to Shahid Khan; Khan had unsuccessfully attempted to buy the Rams. Khan gave a verbal, but nonbinding, commitment to keep the team in Jacksonville. Oakland Raiders owner Al Davis died during the same season, passing the majority ownership of the team to his wife and son. In early 2012, the Davis family acknowledged negotiations with the L.A. groups, but were dissatisfied with both of the proposals and are instead considering sharing the New 49ers Stadium in Santa Clara; Los Angeles remains an option.
- In March 2012, Yahoo! Sports reported on a meeting between the league management and AEG, in which it became clear that none of the NFL's owners were willing to agree to the terms AEG was putting forth for the relocation of a team to Los Angeles. Neither AEG nor the league confirmed the meeting, which, if true, would jeopardize the project unless AEG were to to make concessions. At the same time, the new owners of the Los Angeles Dodgers expressed interest in bringing the NFL to Chavez Ravine, current location of Dodger Stadium.
- On April 18, 2012, after a Minnesota Legislature committee rejected a public financing proposal for the proposed new Minnesota Vikings stadium, the league met with Vikings owner Zygi Wilf and Minnesota governor Mark Dayton to discuss the potential sale and relocation of the Vikings franchise. Soon after, Wilf met with Los Angeles mayor Antonio Villaraigosa regarding the same topic, and indicated he would not renew the Vikings' lease on the Metrodome without a plan for a new stadium. After a re-vote, the Minnesota House passed a stadium financing bill on May 8, albeit with less money than the Vikings were seeking (a stipulation that the Vikings indicate is unacceptable); the Senate passed the bill May 10, at which point the Vikings indicated they would be willing to accept the terms. This effectively eliminated the Vikings from the threat of relocation.
Neither the Rams nor Raiders sold out many games while playing in the L.A. area, where they were expected to sell 90,000 tickets a game for Rams and Raiders teams at the Coliseum (several thousand seats were closed off during the time the Raiders called the Coliseum home, also, games between the two teams from 1982-94 did sell out, due to the prospect of a crosstown rivalry). Those games were blacked out in accord with the NFL's "72-hour rule." The Raiders have since struggled to sell out games in Oakland while the Rams were able to get a deal to return to owner Georgia Frontiere's hometown of St. Louis where they were guaranteed sellout revenues. However, since about 2006 the Rams have been struggling to sell out games in St. Louis. Before his death, Raiders owner Al Davis grew frustrated with Oakland city officials for allegedly duping them into packing their bags in 1994 and sued the city multiple times. He also claimed that the NFL had interfered with his negotiations to build a new stadium in Hollywood Park and subsequently forced the Raiders to take Oakland's offer in a lawsuit that was just recently settled in favor of the league. Davis still stated that the rights to the L.A. market belonged to him and had tried to interfere with attempts to put a new team there by lamenting his desire to still play there and that if he did not that he should have been compensated for the fee the league charged him when he moved there.
Potential league expansionEdit
In 2012, NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell appeared on Costas Live on NBC Sports Network to discuss a possibility of football in L.A. Goodell said that he wouldn't like any team to relocate to the city. The commissioner said that if L.A. were to get a team, the league would have to expand to 34 teams.
Los Angeles as a bargaining chipEdit
Cynics also claim that the National Football League teams do not truly want an NFL franchise in Los Angeles, as it would remove the threat of actually moving an existing team to Los Angeles, a major bargaining chip in negotiations for new stadiums. Building, renovating, or even maintaining a stadium to the caliber of most NFL teams carries a minimum price tag of US$200 million, and teams that need such work done can often convince municipalities to foot some or all of the cost of this work, preserving the teams' profits; this, however, hinges on the perceived threat of the team moving elsewhere. A team in Los Angeles leaves those teams without a major relocation option, giving the municipalities greater leverage over the teams (and, by extension, the league).
Pro football activity in L.A. since 1995Edit
- The Los Angeles Avengers were a member of the Arena Football League from 2000 to 2009, when the league suspended operations.
- The Los Angeles Xtreme won the only championship in the brief history of the XFL, in 2001.
- The United Football League had committed to a Los Angeles franchise (possibly with Mark Cuban as its owner) for its 2009 season and, when the league cut back the number of teams it planned to launch from six to four, had planned to have the team that became the Las Vegas Locomotives play one of its home games in the Home Depot Center in preparation for a full-time Los Angeles team in 2010. However, the league later dropped their plan to play at the Home Depot Center in 2009, and later announced that Los Angeles was no longer in contention for 2010 expansion. The league again refused to expand into Los Angeles for the 2011 season, despite a commitment from the commissioner promising a team if it meant an even number of teams (the 2011 season will begin with five teams, Los Angeles would have made it an even six). Los Angeles is once again off the list of expansion cities in 2012; the league has since changed its focus to mid-sized markets.
- The NFL has maintained a limited presence in the market. NFL Network, the in-house cable and satellite network founded in 2003, is headquartered in nearby Culver City and players often visit its studio, especially in the offseason.
- The NFL Players Association's "Rookie Premiere," in which first-year athletes pose for trading card pictures, is held annually at the Coliseum. The Coliseum also staged part of the league's opening-weekend celebrations in 2005.
- The annual spring meeting of the NFL owners, where new rules are voted on and other issues are talked about, is usually held in the Los Angeles area in March.
- The Los Angeles Temptation of the Lingerie Football League played its first two full seasons (2009 and 2010) in the city (specifically the LA Memorial Coliseum) before relocating to the Inland Empire in 2011. The Temptation still refer to themselves as a Los Angeles team.
- Los Angeles has been named to have a franchise in the relaunch of the USFL, which will have Sean Salisbury as coach, but the league opening has been set back several times, and now seems to have collapsed.
Then-California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger championed a new football stadium in Anaheim in tandem with a new L.A. Coliseum. There are reports, however, that NFL owners will not approve a return to the L.A. area until two teams commit to play in a single new stadium (similar to the Giants and Jets, first in Giants Stadium and from 2010 in the Met Life Stadium). Due to worldwide increases in the prices of steel, concrete and fuel some cost estimates for new stadiums have exceeded $1 billion. As a result, it will be difficult for the league to privately finance one stadium, let alone two. In response to rising cost estimates for a new stadium, NFL commissioner Roger Goodell has said that returning the NFL to Los Angeles will require the league to consider unspecified "alternative solutions."
The National Football League is not planning on expanding, so one or more teams would have to relocate to justify any new stadium projects. The three teams which used to play in Los Angeles but moved elsewhere (the San Diego Chargers, St. Louis Rams and Oakland Raiders) have all been rumored to be open to moving back. Four other teams— Buffalo Bills, Jacksonville Jaguars, Minnesota Vikings, and the San Francisco 49ers — had also been identified as possible prime tenants of a new stadium. Of those teams, the Vikings have no current stadium lease, the Bills' lease expires after the 2012 season, and the Raiders' lease expires in 2013. The Rams and Chargers, although both are in long-term leases, both have escape clauses written in their current stadium leases; the Jaguars do not.
Near the end of the 2010 season, two of those seven teams suffered severe problems with their current facilities. The roof of the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome in Minneapolis collapsed after record-breaking snowfall in December 2010, forcing the Minnesota Vikings to play their last two home games elsewhere. The first game was delayed one day and was moved to Ford Field in Detroit. The second one was played as scheduled in Minneapolis on Monday Night Football, but it was moved across town to TCF Bank Stadium, home of the University of Minnesota Golden Gophers. Also in December 2010, Qualcomm Stadium in San Diego flooded, although no Chargers home games were moved or delayed as a result. These issues led to plans to build new stadiums for the Vikings and the Chargers.
Other than Los Angeles, the NFL has returned to every city it vacated in the modern era (Oakland, Baltimore, St. Louis, Cleveland and Houston). The 2009 NFL season was L.A.'s 15th year with no franchise, thus eclipsing Oakland for the longest duration in the modern era that a former NFL city has lacked a franchise (17 years as of the 2011 NFL Season).
In an open letter on its labor blog, the NFL and Commissioner Roger Goodell brought up Los Angeles first when writing about the need to finance and construct new stadiums with a new collective bargaining agreement. There has been talk of bringing two expansion teams to Los Angeles after a new collective bargaining agreement is achieved.
A renovated Coliseum would seat 65,000 for most major events, expanding to about 80,000 for Super Bowls and University of Southern California (USC) home games. The Coliseum would retain the peristyle section and columns that are part of the current stadium, in a design similar to Soldier Field in Chicago, which is the home of the Chicago Bears. This stadium was supported by former California governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and the Los Angeles City Council approved a preliminary financing plan and environmental impact report in 2006. But the Exposition Park area still carries safety concerns among some fans.
In October 2006, a new doubt was cast over the Coliseum's future as a possible venue, as reports surfaced that the Coliseum Commission was negotiating to hand over control of the stadium to USC, which could preclude any plans to renovate the stadium for the NFL. Pat Lynch, the Coliseum's general manager, claimed in a panel discussion in December 2006 that the true cost of a new Coliseum would be closer to $650 million. In December 2007, talks between USC and the Coliseum Commission broke down and the USC Athlectic department made public their threat to leave. In February 2008 the Coliseum Commission and USC came to a tentative agreement that would keep USC Trojans football in place for the next 25 years with an option for a total of 47 years. The agreement would require the Commission to pay for upgrades including replacement of the seats, field, drainage system, and the fence around the stadium. In addition to the basic improvements the deal would see upgrades to the sound and lighting systems, new elevators and escalators, new videoboards and scoreboards, new restrooms and concession areas. In return, USC will agree to pay the equivalent of 8% of all gross ticket sales for home games and 50% of all game day expenses that the stadium incurs. In addition, USC will pay the Commission 8% of all revenue from television broadcasts from games where fewer than 70,000 people are in attendance. The deal also includes a right of consent for USC for any amateur or professional team seeking permission to play in the Coliseum. The Commission and the Trojans will cooperate to find a naming-rights sponsor for the Coliseum. USC will also receive a seat on the Coliseum Commission for as long as the school remains at the stadium.
Anaheim stadium siteEdit
A stadium site in Anaheim has been proposed on and off over the last decade. The latest plan is for a 60,000-to-70,000-seat stadium located adjacent to the Rams' old home, Anaheim Stadium (now Angel Stadium of Anaheim). Those stadiums, as well as the Honda Center (formerly Arrowhead Pond), apartments, shops, and restaurants, would be part of a "Platinum Triangle" development.
A 70,000-seat stadium was proposed for Carson, on a site bordered by Interstates 110 and 405. The stadium and team would have been owned by Hollywood executive Michael Ovitz. But the site is full of toxins and other environmental problems, and eventually for that reason, as well as a failure of Carson to approve a financing plan, it was abandoned. The latest plans are to build The Boulevards at South Bay (formerly Avalon at South Bay and Carson Marketplace), a mixed-use development which will include homes, apartments, a 200-room hotel, and a retail power center. Construction is contingent on an extensive cleanup of the site, which as of spring 2009 was continuing. Developers hope to open at least part of the site in 2011. Carson does have a sports complex, The Home Depot Center, on the campus of California State University, Dominguez Hills.
Dodger Stadium siteEdit
The Dodger Stadium parking lot has been discussed by NFL owners, in private, as possibly being the best site in Southern California to build a new professional football stadium,. Officials with the Dodgers and the NFL met in secret twice in 2005 to discuss the possibility of constructing a stadium and retail complex adjacent to Dodger Stadium. The New 49ers Stadium is also a stadium being planned in the parking lot of a venue. After the Boston Herald reported the details of the plan, political pressure forced both the NFL and Dodgers owner Frank McCourt to deny that either party was aggressively pursuing the idea.
City of IndustryEdit
- Main article: Los Angeles Stadium
Edward P. Roski, a part-owner of the Los Angeles Lakers and Los Angeles Kings, has announced plans for a new stadium on the northern side of the interchange of State Routes 57 and 60 (almost 22 miles east of downtown LA) with the purpose of attracting a team to the Los Angeles region. Roski, who built the Staples Center, stated that the new 75,000 seat stadium, which is part of a 600 acre entertainment and retail project, would all be privately financed and would be the centerpiece of a new entertainment complex in the City of Industry. Three teams have been mention as potential candidates for relocation: former Los Angeles teams San Diego Chargers, St. Louis Rams, and Oakland Raiders. The Buffalo Bills may also relocate due to their stadium lease expiring at the end of the 2012 NFL Season and that Buffalo has a bad current economic sitation as well as a rapiding shrinking population. The Jacksonville Jaguars, Minnesota Vikings, and San Francisco 49ers are no longer a candidate for relocation. The project is cleared to begin construction though it is waiting on the negotiations of the NFL's commitment to relocate a team (or possibility two) to Los Angeles.
Downtown Los AngelesEdit
- Main article: Farmers Field
Casey Wasserman and Tim Leiweke have investigated the probability of building a 72,000-seat stadium behind Staples Center, where the West Hall of the Los Angeles Convention Center now sits. In December Leiweke set a deadline anticipating a cleared negotiation with Los Angeles over control of the current convention center and ownership of the land and an agreement with the NFL over the likelihood of a team moving to Los Angeles. AEG owner Philip Anschutz currently is not in support of the project. Anschutz has discussed with three teams: former Los Angeles teams: San Diego Chargers, St. Louis Rams, and Oakland Raiders. The Buffalo Bills may also relocate due to their lease at Ralph Wilson Stadium expiring after the 2012 NFL Season and that Buffalo has a bad current economic situation as well as a rapidly shrinking population. The Jacksonville Jaguars, Minnesota Vikings, and San Francisco 49ers are no longer candidates for relocation. On August 9, 2011, the LA City Council approved plans to build Farmers Field in a 12-0 vote. If an NFL team relocates to Los Angeles, the stadium could open in 2016.  The 2008 Midway Games video game Blitz: The League II featured a team called the L.A. Riot who played in Los Angeles and was the antagonist to the created players team.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 McDonald, Jerry – Raiders' exodus ... no crying in SoCal. Oakland Tribune, Jun 23, 2005
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Roski plans to unveil plan to get a franchise for Los Angeles. Associated Press, April 18, 2008
- ↑ "Mayor benches NFL plan, wants Trojans in Coliseum", November 29, 2007. Retrieved on June 3, 2011. “With USC threatening to move its home games to Pasadena's Rose Bowl, Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa called for a long-term deal to keep the Trojans in the Memorial Coliseum, saying for the first time he has given up hope of the National Football League returning to the aging stadium. "While I remain committed to bringing a professional team to Los Angeles, it is time to read the scoreboard," Villaraigosa said in a statement Wednesday. "The Coliseum is no longer a viable option for the NFL."”
- ↑ "L.A. Now", Los Angeles Times.
- ↑ McCambridge, Michael (2005). America's game: the epic story of how pro football captured a nation. New York: Random House. pp. 16–17. Template:Citation/identifier.
- ↑ Schedules and scores of the teams in the 1926 American Football League – “Ghosts of the Gridiron”
- ↑ DAN REEVES MOVES WEST The Coffin Corner Volume XX, 1998. Courtesy of The Pro Football Hall of Fame
- ↑ Picture of Anaheim Stadium
- ↑ Darnell, Matthew (June 1, 2009). For sale: NFL team (offensive line not included). Yahoo! Sports. Retrieved on June 28, 2009.
- ↑ "Stan Kroenke is new Rams owner", ESPN.com, August 25, 2010. Retrieved on December 13, 2010.
- ↑ "SPORTS PEOPLE; Ruling on Irwindale", September 29, 1987.
- ↑ Obituary: Bill Robertson Los Angeles Times. December 10, 2005 "But an achievement he considered one of the proudest of his career was his role as chief negotiator in the $6.7-million deal in 1980 to bring the Raiders football team from Oakland to the Los Angeles Coliseum. He stepped in again later to persuade Raiders owner Al Davis to stay on and helped forge a public and private agreement to renovate the aging Coliseum. When the promised stadium reconfiguration bogged down, Davis announced in 1987 that he would move the Raiders to Irwindale. They ultimately returned to Oakland for the 1995 season. Robertson resigned from the Coliseum Commission, blaming the team's defection on what he called the "blind leadership" of his successor as commission president, Alexander Haagen.
- ↑ University of Southern California Official Athletic Site - Facilities. Usctrojans.cstv.com. Retrieved on 2012-02-28.
- ↑ Nightengale, Bob – Without Disney, Angels could become X-rated. (sale of California Angels to Walt Disney Co in jeopardy). Sporting News, March 25, 1996
- ↑ 
- ↑ Dodgers, NFL reportedly discuss stadium deal NBC Sports, December 29, 2005
- ↑ Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times, November 10, 2006
- ↑ Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times, November 10, 2006
- ↑ Seifert, Kevin – Los Angeles developer seeks team for stadium. Real estate billionaire Ed Roski hopes to entice a team with stadium issues, such as the Vikings, to move in by 2011. Star Tribune, April 17, 2008
- ↑ Farmer, Sam – NFL in L.A. gets a new blueprint. Roski unveiling his plan for a stadium in the City of Industry, but is the league interested? Los Angeles Times, April 17, 2008
- ↑ Niners, Raiders to move to Los Angeles? June 2, 2008
- ↑ Los Angeles Football Stadium at Grand Crossing | Latest News and Headlines. Losangelesfootballstadium.com. Retrieved on 2012-02-28.
- ↑ Raiders owner admits L.A. stadium talks. ESPN.com. Retrieved January 11, 2012.
- ↑ Cole, Jason (March 29, 2012). Sources: Downtown Los Angeles Stadium proposal in trouble because of AEG’s terms to NFL. Yahoo Sports. Retrieved March 30, 2012.
- ↑ New Dodgers owners reportedly have looked into NFL stadium. NFL.com. Retrieved April 1, 2012.
- ↑ Kaszuba, Mike and Mark Craig (April 18, 2012). NFL turns up heat: 'There are plenty of willing buyers' for Vikings. Minneapolis Star-Tribune. Retrieved April 18, 2012.
- ↑ Private plane belonging to Minnesota Vikings owner Zygi Wilf spotted at Southern California airport. Los Angeles Daily News. Retrieved April 20, 2012.
- ↑ Minnesota Vikings stadium bill not workable, team says. NFL.com. Retrieved May 8, 2012.
- ↑ 
- ↑ NFL commissioner Roger Goodell says 34 teams are likely if NFL adds franchise in Los Angeles - ESPN Los Angeles. ESPN (2012-02-3). Retrieved on 2012-03-28.
- ↑ Dayton: Let's settle stadium issue, with talk of L.A.. StarTribune.com (2011-10-15). Retrieved on 2012-02-28.
- ↑ Arena football's Avengers shutting down. Columbus Business Journal. April 27, 2009.
- ↑ http://www.kvia.com/news/31043292/detail.html
- ↑ Clayton, John (May 24, 2006). New commish likely by fall; L.A. search to take longer. ESPN.com. Retrieved on June 3, 2011.
- ↑ Daily News (content missing). Los Angeles Daily News
- ↑ Sid Hartman (content missing). Minneapolis Star Tribune
- ↑ San Jose Mercury News (content missing). San Jose Mercury News
- ↑ Craig, Mark. "California stadium group to target would-be NFL tenants", October 8, 2009. [dead link]
- ↑ "Stadium developer to ask six NFL teams to move to L.A.", Los Angeles Daily News, October 8, 2009.
- ↑ Campbell, Dave and John Krawczynski (May 7, 2012). Vikings in limbo and expansion not on NFL's radar. Associated Press. Retrieved May 7, 2012.
- ↑ Goodell, Roger (February 15, 2011). Commissioner Goodell: “We need an agreement both sides can live with”. NFL.com. Retrieved on June 3, 2011.
- ↑ footballphds.com http://www.footballphds.com/the-primer-nfl-in-la/
- ↑ Los Angeles Times, Oct. 10, 2006, page D1
- ↑ Farmer, Sam. "Coliseum panel mulls options", June 6, 2007.
- ↑ Regardie, Jon (December 8, 2006). A Trip Down Ugly Memory Lane. LAdowntownnews.com. Retrieved on June 3, 2011.
- ↑ Shaikin, Bill. "Frank McCourt might keep Dodger Stadium parking lots", January 18, 2012.
- ↑ Orange County Business Journal Online
- ↑ Sharma, Chandra (June 17, 2008). CA will benefit overall as Roski and NFL move toward LA Stadium deal. Fox & Hounds Daily. Retrieved on June 3, 2011.
- ↑ Regardie, Jon (December 8, 2010). Leiweke Wants Framework on NFL Plan Within Three Months. LAdowntownnews.com. Retrieved on June 3, 2011.
- ↑ Lacter, Mark (December 22, 2010). More doubts raised about downtown stadium plan. LAobserved.com. Retrieved on June 3, 2011.
- ↑ Cole, Jason (December 21, 2010). 2 NFL stadium plans complicate L.A. landscape. Yahoo! Sports. Retrieved on June 3, 2011.
- ↑ Florio, Mike (December 16, 2010). Downtown L.A. stadium far from a sure thing. NBCSports.com. Retrieved on June 3, 2011.
- ↑ http://www.foxsportsnorth.com/05/10/12/Vikings-stadium-approved-by-state-lawmak/landing_mnvikings.html?blockID=726636&feedID=5930
- ↑ Los Angeles stadium planner: Talks held with five NFL teams - Sports Illustrated, Juen 10, 2011
- ↑ Gehman, Jim. Between the Lies (9780983061939): Marv Levy: Books. Amazon.com. Retrieved on 2012-02-28.