|Located||100 Art Rooney Avenue|
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212
|Owner||Sports & Exhibition Authority|
of Pittsburgh and
|Operator||Pittsburgh Steelers |
University of Pennsylvania
|Broke ground||June 18, 1999|
|Opened||August 18, 2001|
|Pittsburgh Steelers (NFL) 2001-present |
Pittsburgh Panthers (NCAA) (2001-present)
Heinz Field is a stadium located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It primarily serves as the home to the Pittsburgh Steelers and Pittsburgh Panthers American football teams, members of the National Football League (NFL) and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) respectively. It hosted the 2011 NHL Winter Classic between the Pittsburgh Penguins and Washington Capitals on January 1st 2011. The stadium opened in 2001, after the controlled implosion of the teams' previous stadium, Three Rivers Stadium. The stadium is named for locally based H. J. Heinz Company, which purchased the naming rights in 2001.
Funded in conjunction with PNC Park and the David L. Lawrence Convention Center, the US$281 million stadium stands along the Ohio River, on the Northside of Pittsburgh in the North Shore neighborhood. The stadium was designed with the city of Pittsburgh's history of steel production in mind, which led to the inclusion of 12,000 tons of steel into the design. Ground for the stadium was broken in June 1999 and the first football game was hosted in September 2001. The stadium's natural grass surface has been criticized throughout its history, but Steelers ownership has kept the grass after lobbying from players and coaches. Attendance for the 65,050 seat stadium has sold out for every Steelers home game, a streak which dates back to 1972 (a year before local telecasts of home games were permitted in the NFL). A collection of memorabilia from the Steelers and Panthers of the past can be found in the Coca-Cola Great Hall.
Planning and fundingEdit
The Pittsburgh Steelers and the Pittsburgh Pirates shared Three Rivers Stadium from 1970 to 2000. After discussions over the Pittsburgh Pirates building a full-time baseball park, a proposal was made to renovate Three Rivers Stadium into a full-time football facility. Though met with negative reaction from Steelers ownership, the proposal was used as a "fallback position" that would be used if discussions for a new stadium failed. Steelers ownership stated that failing to build a new stadium would hurt the franchise's chances of signing players who might opt to sign with other teams, such as the other three teams in the Steelers division who had all recently built new football-only stadiums. In June 2001, the H. J. Heinz Company purchased the naming rights to the stadium. As per the deal, Heinz will pay the Steelers a total of $57 million through 2021.
Originally, a sales tax increase was proposed to fund three projects: Heinz Field, PNC Park, and an expansion of the David L. Lawrence Convention Center. After the rejection of this proposal in a referendum, the city developed Plan B. Similarly controversial, the alternative proposal was labeled Scam B by opponents. The Steelers' pledge toward the new stadium was criticized for being too little, even after it was raised from $50 million to $76.5 million. Other local government members criticized the $281 million of public money allocated for Plan B. One member of the Allegheny Regional Asset District board called the use of tax dollars "corporate welfare". The plan, totaling $809 million, was approved by the Allegheny Regional Asset District board on July 9, 1998, with $233 million allotted for Heinz Field. Shortly after Plan B was approved, the Steelers made a deal with Pittsburgh city officials to stay in the city until at least 2031. The total cost of Heinz Field was $281 million.
Design and constructionEdit
Kansas City-based Populous (then HOK Sport Venue Event) designed the stadium. Populous' project manager for Heinz Field, Melinda Lehman, stated the Rooney family asked that the stadium's design "acknowledge the history of Pittsburgh and also bring in an element of looking forward, this is where Pittsburgh is going." In order to accomplish this, Populous used steel structurally and externally. The stone used in Heinz Field's design is artificial, in order to decrease cost. Of the glass used in the stadium's design, Lehman said, "The glass is a more modern building element, which ties into a lot of the buildings in [Downtown] Pittsburgh and gives great views of the surrounding areas." The Steelers and Panthers have their own locker rooms, which differ in size based on the amount of players each team is permitted to dress for each game. The visitor facilities are modeled after the home locker rooms' design. As with its predecessor, Heinz Field's culinary service provider is Aramark; over 400 eateries are located throughout the stadium. A bronze statue of Steelers founder Art Rooney, similar to those located outside PNC Park, was moved 100 feet (30m) from its previous position outside Three Rivers Stadium. In addition, a statue of a Pitt Panther over a paved depiction of Pitt's Cathedral of Learning was placed outside Gate A. Upon opening in 2001, Heinz Field's 27 by 96 foot Sony JumboTron was the largest scoreboard in the NFL. In 2007, ESPN named the "tipping" of the oversized Heinz ketchup bottles atop the scoreboard one of the top ten touchdown celebrations in the NFL.
Ground was broken for Heinz Field on June 18, 1999, at a ceremony co-hosted by the Steelers and the University of Pittsburgh. The stadium was constructed by Hunt Construction Group and Mascaro Corporation. The two companies directed 1,400 workers over two years, in which there were no construction accidents or lawsuits. The stadium is inspected yearly, along with PNC Park, by Chronicle Consulting, LLC, for structural defects and maintenance.
Opening and other eventsEdit
The first event held at Heinz Field was a concert hosted by the band 'N Sync, on August 18, 2001. Prior to the Steelers regular season schedule, the team played a pre-season game against the Detroit Lions on August 25, 2001. Pittsburgh won the stadium's unofficial opening game 20–7, with 57,829 spectators in attendance. The first official football game played in the stadium was between the Pittsburgh Panthers and East Tennessee State, on September 1. The Panthers won the game 31–0, with quarterback David Priestley scoring the first touchdown on an 85-yard run. The Steelers were scheduled to open the regular season play at Heinz Field on September 16 against the Cleveland Browns, however, due to the September 11 attacks, all NFL games of the week were postponed; thus moving the stadium's premiere to October 7, against the Cincinnati Bengals. Prior to the game, a speech from US President George W. Bush, ordering attacks on Taliban-controlled Afghanistan, was shown live on the stadium's JumboTron. The speech was met with much applause and support from the spectators in attendance. Pittsburgh defeated the Bengals by a score of 16–7. Steelers kicker Kris Brown scored the first NFL points in the stadium on a 26-yard field goal, and quarterback Kordell Stewart scored the first touchdown on an eight yard run.
In addition to football games, Heinz Field has hosted other various activities. Since its opening in 2001, bands including 'N Sync, Kenny Chesney, and LeAnn Rimes have performed at the stadium. In addition, hometown bands The Clarks and the Povertyneck Hillbillies have played multiple shows at the stadium. In 2002, the Pittsburgh Marathon concluded at Heinz Field, the course was altered from past years to allow competitors to cross the finish line on the field. In 2005, the Pittsburgh Wine Festival was held at Heinz Field, over 2,000 people attended. In 2007, writer Bill Evans named Heinz Field the second best stadium in the NFL, behind Lambeau Field, in an article for ESPN.com. Although both stadiums received a score of 54 out of 70, Sports Illustrated named Heinz Field the second best stadium in the NFL, also behind Lambeau Field.
That same year, two light emitting diode (LED) video displays from Daktronics were installed at the field. The larger, high definition video display measures approximately 28 feet (Expression error: Unexpected < operator. m) high by nearly 96 feet (Expression error: Unexpected < operator. m) wide.
NHL Winter ClassicEdit
On May 28, 2010, National Hockey League commissioner Gary Bettman announced that Heinz Field will be the host of the 2011 NHL Winter Classic.  The game was played January 1, 2011 between the Pittsburgh Penguins and Washington Capitals. Pittsburgh native Jackie Evancho sang the Star Spangled Banner before local sports legends Franco Harris, Jerome Bettis and Mario Lemieux dropped the ceremonial puck. The Capitals won, 3-1. The game was the highest rated NHL contest since 1996 and the highest rated regular season game since 1975. It was also the first night Classic and the first to use "CableCam" technology.
In June 2001, Kentucky Bluegrass was laid on the field, at half the height of most NFL field's Template:Convert/in grass. The field is heated from below, using a mixture of antifreeze and hot water, to keep the field at around 62 degrees fahrenheit (17 degrees celsius) in order to keep the grass growing year-round. The field was re-surfaced multiple times, until the synthetic-enhanced Desso GrassMaster was installed in 2003. Debate continued over the surface after players began slipping during game play. Despite this players and coaches of Pitt, the Steelers, and their opponents supported keeping the current turf.
Template:Pquote On Friday, November 23, 2007, Heinz Field hosted four WPIAL championship football games which were followed the day after with a game between Pitt and South Florida. After discussion with the NFL, Steelers ownership made the decision to re-surface the field for their nationally televised game against the Miami Dolphins. A layer of sod was laid overtop the Template:Convert/acre Desso GrassMaster surface. The field's condition was exacerbated by 1½ inches of rain after the new sod had been laid, which did not allow the tarp to be removed from the field until 70 minutes before the game began. The Steelers won the game 3–0, with a field goal by Jeff Reed with 17 seconds remaining in regulation. Scott Brown, of the Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, called the field a "veritable mud pit". While Gene Upshaw, head of the National Football League Players' Association, also criticized the field citing a 2006 survey of NFL players that ranked Heinz Field as the second worst field in the league. Steelers receiver Hines Ward called the playing conditions "horrendous" after the game. However, the following day Ward and other Pittsburgh players lobbied to keep the natural surface stating, "I think everybody wants to keep the grass."
Debate continued over the field later in the season when Jacksonville running back Fred Taylor called the field "a lawsuit pending". Pittsburgh's ownership stated that the decision was up to the players, who once again defended the natural surface. In February 2008, the Steelers announced that they would keep the Desso GrassMaster surface. During the 2008 season quarterback Ben Roethlisberger was given a concussion after being hit at Heinz Field. He later stated, "I'm glad we weren't on FieldTurf. That grass—you know, the soft Heinz Field—might've helped a little bit." After the 2008 season, a poll of 1,565 NFL players rated the surface at Heinz Field as the worst of the 18 natural surfaces in the League.
The DDGrassmaster surface was removed in January 2009 and replaced with the old sod placed on top of the DDGrassmaster surface for the AFC Championship also in January 2009.
Unique about the field is the design itself. Initially, the south end zone had either "Steelers" or "Panthers" painted in the end zone, depending on the game itself. The north end zone has always read "Pittsburgh", which is painted in gold lettering and trimmed in either black for the Steelers or dark blue for Pitt. Although there is typically no midfield logo when both Pitt and the Steelers are in season, both teams have applied their logo if the field's schedule allows for a sufficient break to remove or apply the other team's logo for that team's next upcoming game. The Steelers have typically added their logo to midfield after Pitt's football season has ended.
In 2003, the Steelers played the Philadelphia Eagles in a preseason game to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the Steagles team, when the two merged as a result of player shortages caused by World War II. Steelers president Dan Rooney had initially considered wearing a throwback uniform for the game, but decided against it because the merged team wore the Eagles uniforms, and the Steelers didn't want to wear the Eagles' colors. Instead, the team had the south end zone painted in plain diagonal white lines, which were common in NFL endzones until the 1960s.
Although the Steelers lost the game 21-16, Rooney liked the look of the south end zone being "plain", and decided to keep it permanently. Like with the team's logo at midfield, the Steelers paint "Steelers" in the south end zone once the college football season ends. The Green Bay Packers also adopted the plain diagonal white lines in the end zones at Lambeau Field for 2007 due to an Anniversary logo being painted there, before switching back to wordmark endzones in 2008 which have remained since.
Seating and ticketsEdit
As of 2008, the Pittsburgh Steelers have sold out every home game since the 1972 season. Entering the 2008 season, the Steelers average ticket price of $67.47 was the 17th highest out of the NFL's 32 teams. The majority of the 65,050 seats are colored "Steeler gold", though club seats are dark gray. Heinz Field features 1,500 seats in 129 luxury boxes, with prices ranging from $44,000 to $125,000 depending on location and size. These boxes were predicted to increase the Steelers' profits from $10 to $11 million per season over those at Three Rivers Stadium. The stadium also features 6,600 club seats that include a restaurant and an indoor bar, at prices up to $1,900 per person. For the 2010 season, season ticket prices for Panthers games range from a maximum of $285 per club seat with required donations per seat between $250 and $500 depending on location, to as low as $87 per seat with no required donation for upper end zone sections. Individual game ticket prices ranged from $30 to $65 depending on the seat location and the opponent. Attendance for Panthers games has varied from an average high of 59,197 people per game throughout the 2003 season to a low of 33,680 in 2007. Most recently, Pitt averaged 53,446 in home attendance during the 2009 season.
The Coca-Cola Great Hall spans approximately 40,000 square feet (Expression error: Unexpected < operator. m2) on the east side of the stadium and houses a collection of Steelers and Pittsburgh Panthers memorabilia. The Hall includes a timeline of the Steelers franchise's major events, an oversized Steelers helmet hangs from the ceiling beside a video screen that shows entertainment for fans throughout game days. The Great Hall also features the actual lockers of several former Steelers, including Hall of Fame members Franco Harris, Joe Greene, and Bill Dudley. Six large Super Bowl trophies-shaped display columns were erected and contain artifacts from each championship the Steelers have won including replica trophies. Two display columns are dedicated to the University of Pittsburgh and contain memorabilia from the Panthers' teams. The floor is painted to resemble the field at Three Rivers Stadium, with the word "Steelers" painted in black over a gold background. University of Pittsburgh players are featured on two large murals within the Hall. Eight additional tile murals created by local high schools represent western Pennsylvania football history. In 2007, the Great Hall was named the best concourse at an NFL stadium by writer Bill Evans, in an article for ESPN.com.
The Steelers notified the Pittsburgh Stadium Authority in December 2010 of their intention to add up to 4,000 seats to the lower southern end of the stadium. The plan would increase seating up to 69,050 as soon as the 2012 NFL season. Seating was added in that section for the 2011 NHL Winter Classic which had an attendance of 68,111. The temporary seating was left in place for the 2010-11 NFL playoffs, with the AFC Championship game on January 23 having a record attendance of 66,662.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Heinz Field Stadium Fact Sheet. Steelers.com. Archived from the original on April 17, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Cook, Ron. "Plan B flawed; option is worse", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 1998-06-22. Retrieved on 2008-04-05.
- ↑ Barnes, Tom. "Steelers sell bonds to help raise money for new stadium", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 1998-06-18. Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
- ↑ Bouchette, Ed. "Heinz Field: Standing up to the competition", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 2001-08-24. Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
- ↑ Deckard, Linda. "Heinz Pours Itself Into $57 Million Naming Rights Deal In Pittsburgh", AllBusiness.com, 2001-06-25. Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
- ↑ Stadium naming rights. Sports Business. ESPN.com (2008-09-29). Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 7.2 Barnes, Tom. "Let the games begin, Heinz Field boss says", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 2001-08-25. Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
- ↑ Plan B. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved on 2008-04-05.
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 Dvorchak, Robert. "A TD for Plan B", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 1998-06-21. Retrieved on 2008-04-05.
- ↑ Belko, Mark. "Cranmer still optimistic on Plan B deal", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 1998-06-05. Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
- ↑ "Team sale would trigger review of public stadium funding", NFL, ESPN.com, 2008-07-16. Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 Barnes, Tom, Dvorchak, Robert. "Plan B approved: Play ball!", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 1998-07-10. Retrieved on 2008-04-05.
- ↑ Barnes, Tom. "Arena won't be part of Plan B", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 1998-02-11. Retrieved on 2008-04-05.
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 Dulac, Gerry. "Revenue from premium seating is the coin of the realm in the NFL", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 2001-0-01. Retrieved on 2008-08-06.
- ↑ Dulac, Gerry. "Football stadium architect selected", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 1998-09-28. Retrieved on 2008-04-05.
- ↑ Heinz Field. Populous.com. Retrieved on 2010-01-22.
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 Lowry, Patricia. "Heinz Field dominates, rewards fans with spectacular scenery", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 2001-08-01. Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
- ↑ Fittipaldo, Ray. "New Steelers, Panthers locker rooms are separate, simple", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 2001-08-01. Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
- ↑ Heinz Field. Stadiums and arenas. Aramark.com. Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
- ↑ Fittipaldo, Ray. "Game-day entertainment built around NFL's biggest scoreboard", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 2001-08-01. Retrieved on 2008-08-06.
- ↑ Pahigian, Josh. "Best NFL Touchdown Rituals (continued)", Sports Travel, ESPN.com, 2007-12-03. Retrieved on 2008-09-04.
- ↑ "Steelers Break Ground for New Football Stadium", PittsburghSteelers.com, 1999-06-18. Retrieved on 2008-08-06. Archived from the original on May 17, 2008.
- ↑ Heinz Field graphics. Pittsburgh Tribune-Review (2001-08-24). Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
- ↑ Chronicle Consulting. Sports & Exhibition Authority of Pittsburgh and Allegheny County. ChronicleConsulting.com. Retrieved on 2008-04-21.
- ↑ Suhr, Leslie. "'N Sync thrills fans at Heinz opening", Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, 2001-08-19. Retrieved on 2008-08-06.
- ↑ 26.0 26.1 Anderson, Shelly. "High-tech turf awaits Steelers, Panthers", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 2001-08-01. Retrieved on 2008-08-06.
- ↑ Detroit Lions at Pittsburgh Steelers - Preseason Week 3. NFL GameCenter. NFL.com (2001-08-25). Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
- ↑ 28.0 28.1 NFL History. 2001–2010. NFL.com. Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
- ↑ Heinz Field. Facilities. PittsburghPanthers.com. Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
- ↑ 30.0 30.1 30.2 Roberts, Randy; David Welky (2006). One for the Thumb. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: University of Pittsburgh Press. pp. 333. Template:Citation/identifier.
- ↑ Finder, Chuck. "The Big Picture: Home opener almost normal", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 2001-10-08. Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
- ↑ Box Score - Week 4. NFL GameCenter. NFL.com (2001-10-07). Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
- ↑ Copland, David. "N. Side hears 'N Sync loud and clear", Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, 2001-08-19. Retrieved on 2008-08-06.
- ↑ "Urban, Rimes join Chesney for Heinz Field concert", Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, 2008-02-08. Retrieved on 2008-08-06.
- ↑ Hentges, Rochelle. "Hungry for some entertainment? Hit Heinz Field", Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, 2005-09-02. Retrieved on 2008-08-06.
- ↑ Klimovich Harrop, JoAnne. "Marathon finds new home at Heinz Field", Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, 2002-05-01. Retrieved on 2008-08-06.
- ↑ Erdley, Debra, Karin Welzel. "Wine festival scores big at Heinz Field", Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, 2005-05-06. Retrieved on 2008-08-06.
- ↑ 38.0 38.1 38.2 Evans, Bill. "The Ultimate Sports Road Trip's Best NFL Stadiums", ESPN.com, 2007-06-04. Retrieved on 2008-09-04.
- ↑ "NFL Fan Value Experience: Pittsburgh Steelers", Sports Illustrated, 2007-11-07. Retrieved on 2008-10-13.
- ↑ Steelers Upgrade Heinz Field End Zone Video Board.
- ↑ http://penguins.nhl.com/club/news.htm?id=547706
- ↑ Sandomir, Richard. "Ratings Rise for Prime Time Winter Classic", 3 January 2011. Retrieved on 4 January 2011. “The Winter Classic in Pittsburgh between the Penguins and the Washington Capitals on New Year’s Day was seen by an average of 4.5 million viewers on NBC. It was the most-watched N.H.L. regular-season game since a Rangers win over the Philadelphia Flyers in February 1975 attracted 5.5 million viewers.”
- ↑ Bouchette, Ed. "Grass won't be greener (or new)", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 2007-02-03. Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
- ↑ Brown, Scott. "Debate rages over Heinz Field turf", Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, 2006-10-18. Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
- ↑ Bouchette, Ed. "Steelers aim to dry out Heinz Field sod", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 2007-11-27. Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
- ↑ Fuoco, Linda Wilson. "Turf topper: Heinz Field surface sporting new temporary sod", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 2007-11-26. Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
- ↑ 47.0 47.1 Associated Press. "After pondering change, Steelers staying with grass field", NFL, ESPN.com, 2008-02-11. Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
- ↑ Starkey, Joe. "Heinz Field surface 'like a beach'", Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, 2007-11-27. Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
- ↑ Associated Press. "Dolphins continue woeful ways, fall to 0-11 after sloppy game", NFL, ESPN.com, 2007-11-26. Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
- ↑ 50.0 50.1 Browns, Scott. "NFLPA's Upshaw calls out Heinz Field grass", Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, 2008-02-01. Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
- ↑ Clayton, John. "Steelers prevail in 'horrendous' conditions", NFL, ESPN.com, 2007-11-27. Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
- ↑ Associated Press. "Steelers players lobby against artificial turf", NFL, ESPN.com, 2007-11-28. Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
- ↑ Associated Press. "Taylor no fan of Steelers' muck-like conditions at Heinz Field", NFL, ESPN.com, 2008-01-01. Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
- ↑ Associated Press. "Grass or fake grass? Steelers haven't decided yet", NFL, ESPN.com, 2008-01-08. Retrieved on 2008-08-05.
- ↑ Bouchette, Ed. "Roethlisberger: Heinz Field's natural turf lessened injury", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 6 January 2009. Retrieved on 6 January 2009.
- ↑ Bouchette, Ed. "Players rate Heinz Field worst grass playing surface", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 29 January 2009. Retrieved on 29 January 2009.
- ↑ Cite error: Invalid
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- ↑ Associated Press. "Steelers' former radio announcer Myron Cope dies at 79", USA Today, 2008-02-28. Retrieved on 2008-06-07.
- ↑ Robinson, Alan. "Steelers ticket prices again below league average", Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, 2008-09-05. Retrieved on 2008-09-06.
- ↑ 2010 Ticket Information. PittsburghPanthers.com. Retrieved on 2010-06-25.
- ↑ Gorman, Kevin. "Off-campus location a factor in Pitt game attendance", Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, 2007-11-24. Retrieved on 2008-08-06.
- ↑ Pitt 2009 Cumulative Season Statistics. University of Pittsburgh (2009-12-06). Retrieved on 2009-12-23.
- ↑ 63.0 63.1 63.2 Dulac, Gerry. "Great Hall a Steelers shrine", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 2001-08-01. Retrieved on 2008-08-06.
- ↑ 64.0 64.1 Official site of the Pittsburgh Steelers - Coca-Cola Great Hall. Pittsburgh Steelers. Retrieved on 2008-08-06.
- ↑ Steelers consider expanding Heinz Field
- ↑ Steelers climb stairway to Seventh heaven
- Pittsburgh Steelers (2002). House of Steel: Heinz Field and the Dawn of a New Era in Pittsburgh. China. Template:Citation/identifier. http://books.google.com/books?id=La9GAQAACAAJ&dq=Heinz+Field&ei=uheZSLjSAoaCjwG7lc3OBw.